Proxy Pattern

The intent of the proxy-pattern is to provide a placeholder for another object to control access to it. It introduces an additional level of indirection. There are several reasons why you would want to do this, hence there are several uses for this pattern.

One reason for controlling access to an object is to defer the full cost of its creation and initialization until we actually need to use it. Consider a document editor that can embed graphical objects in a document. It isn't necessary to load all pictures when the document is opened, because not all of these objects will be visible at the same time

So we could think about loading each picture on demand, which occurs when an image becomes visible in the document. But what do we put in the document instead of the image? And how can we hide that the pictures are created on demand?

The solution is to use another object, a proxy, in place of an image. The proxy acts like an image and loads the picture when it's required.

The proxy loads and creates the real image just when the document editor requests for showing that image by invoking its draw-method. The proxy then loads the image and forwards the request to it.

This was one usage of a proxy, but there are many more. Some have their own names, depending on their responsibility:

  • A remote proxy is responsible for encoding a request and its arguments and for sending (and retrieving) the request (and the response) to the real object.
  • A virtual proxy may cache additional information about the real subject so that it can postpone the access to it.
  • A protection proxy checks whether the caller has sufficient access permissions for perform a request.

In many cases, real world proxies are a combination of some of these basic proxies.

Applicability / Uses

The proxy pattern is applicable whenever there is a need for a more versatile or sophisticated reference to an object than just a simple pointer.

Related Patterns

  • Usually proxies use some form of the facade pattern to supply a unified interface.
  • It is similar to the decorator pattern which might be a more specific case of the use of a proxy.


UML class diagram of the proxy patternusage of the proxy pattern


In this short example we will use a virtual proxy to handle images.

At first, we need a common interface for a graphic:

public interface Graphic {

        // a method used to draw the image
      public void draw();

The we need an implementation of an image, the image-class will be the "real" object that the proxy will represent

public class Image implements Graphic {

    private byte[] data;

    public Image(String filename) {
        // Load the image
        data = loadImage(filename);
    public void draw() {
        // Draw the image

And now at last, we create the proxy class. The ImageProxy object will maintain references to the real Image object. The interfaces of Image and ImageProxy are identical, however their implementations are of course different. This proxy class may also be responsible for the creation of the Image object or it may also fulfill additional tasks like caching the extent of the image.

public class ImageProxy implements Graphic {

    // Variables to hold the concrete image
    private String filename;
    private Image content;

    public ImageProxy(String filename) {
        this.filename = filename;
        content = null;

    // on a draw-request, load the concrete image
    //   if we haven't done it until yet.
    public void draw() {
        if (content == null) {
            content = new Image(filename);
        // Forward to the Concrete image.